Confidence/precision – Whenever you make a measurement it is important to have some idea of how precise that measurement it. A confidence interval is a standard way of describing the precision of a measurement of some parameter. There are three pieces of information in a confidence interval: the lower bound, the upper bound, and the confidence level.
Coefficient of variation - normalized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution. std_dev/mean.
Histogram – graphical representation showing a visual impression of the distribution of data. Estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable.
Hysteresis – the dependence of a system not only on its current environment, but also on its past environment. This dependence arises because the system can be in more than one internal state. Loops may occur because of dynamic lag between input and output.
Regression analysis – techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. Helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed.